[28], The increasing visibility of the two-spirit concept in mainstream culture has been seen as both empowering and as having some undesirable consequences, such as the spread of misinformation about the cultures of Indigenous people, pan-Indianism, and cultural appropriation of Indigenous identities and ceremonial ways among non-Natives who do not understand that Indigenous communities see two-spirit as a specifically Native American and First Nations cultural identity, not one to be taken up by non-Natives. Traditionally, Native American two spirit people were male, female, and sometimes intersexed individuals who combined activities of both men and women with traits unique to their status as two spirit people. Her character, raised by a white mother and estranged from her Native father, speaks of looking to older ancestors to try to find her own beliefs, much like the other humans in the series. [8][4][18] The following list is not comprehensive. Don Pedro Fages was third in command of the 1769–70 Spanish Portolá expedition, the first European land exploration of what is now the U.S. state of California. However, some in mainstream culture have appropriated or misunderstood Two Spirit outside of its complex and historic Native American cultural context. [69], Use of berdache has now been replaced in most mainstream and anthropological literature by two spirit, with mixed results. [4] The primary purpose of coining a new term was to encourage the replacement of the outdated, and offensive, anthropological term berdache, which means "passive partner in sodomy, boy prostitute."[6][5][7]. For example, LGBTTTIQ stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, two-spirit, intersex and queer. A Two Spirit person may be gay, but a gay person is not necessarily Two Spirit. It usually implies a masculine spirit and a feminine spirit living in the same body. Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior toward both males … . In January 2013, NC2SO and EC2SS created a resource directory of two-… Two Spirit is used as a gender and social identity in Native American cultures. She states, "at the core of contemporary two-spirit identities is ethnicity, an awareness of being Native American as opposed to being white or being a member of any other ethnic group". [75], In the 2019, second season of American Gods, Kawennáhere Devery Jacobs (Mohawk) plays a young Cherokee woman, Sam Black Crow, who self-identifies as "two-spirited". “I’ve had experiences with men, even while I was dating the woman who became my wife. [1][2][3], The term two-spirit was created in 1990 at the Indigenous lesbian and gay international gathering in Winnipeg, and "specifically chosen to distinguish and distance Native American/First Nations people from non-Native peoples. Privileged to hear Benny Michaud speak today @MoodDisordersCa @CDSBEO about her Métis, two-spirit background. Coined by contemporary LGBT Native Americans to describe … Sade 'Heart of the Hawk' Ali First Nations Mi'kmaq speaking passionately about Two Spirit or LGBTIQ+ people #WISPC18 pic.twitter.com/8se6ZbSPDr. No one Native American/First Nations' culture's gender or sexuality categories apply to all, or even a majority of, these cultures. Knowledge in ritual, ceremonial, religious, and culture 2. [8] Claiming a viewpoint of "postidentity" analysis, supporters of "queer of color critique" aim to examine settler colonialism and the ongoing genocide of Native peoples while "queering Native Studies". Claiming the role of Two Spirit is to take up the spiritual responsibility that the role traditionally had. If widowed, the spouse of an ikwekaazo or ininiikaazo could remarry someone of the opposite sex or another ikwekaazo or ininiikaazo. Some who enthusiastically took up the term and used it in the media said that this new, English-language term carried on the full meaning and implications of the Indigenous-language terms used in-community for the specific traditional, ceremonial roles that the anthropologists had referred to[16] - emphasizing the role of the Elders in recognizing a two-spirit person, stressing that "Two Spirit" is not interchangeable with "LGBT Native American" or "Gay Indian",[2] and that the title differs from most western, mainstream definitions of sexuality and gender identity in that it is not a modern, self-chosen term of personal sexual or gender "identity", but is a sacred, spiritual and ceremonial role that is recognized and confirmed by the Elders of the Two Spirit's ceremonial community. 2001 (retrieved 19 Oct 2009). Although all of the different identities within “LGBT” are often lumped together (and share sexism as a common root of oppression), there are specific needs and concerns related to each individual identity. "[78], In 2012, a marker dedicated to two spirit people was included in the Legacy Walk, an outdoor public display in Chicago, Illinois, that celebrates LGBT history and people.[79]. Learn more about the history of two spirit identity. [12], When Indigenous people from communities that are less-accepting of two-spirits have sought community among non-Native LGBT communities, however, the tendency for non-Natives to tokenize and appropriate has at times led to rifts rather than unity, with two-spirits feeling like they are just another tacked on initial rather than fully included. In the film, Nibley "affirms Martinez' Navajo sense of being a two spirit 'effeminate male', or nádleeh". Two Spirit is more about the embodiment of two genders residing within one person. They consider themselves to be "muxe in men's bodies," who do the work that their culture usually associates with women. [8][12], These sort of simplified black-and-white depictions of Native culture and history perpetuate indiscriminate appropriation of Native peoples. Let us know! Hosteen Klah: Navaho Medicine Man and Sand Painter. My concern is not so much over the use of the words but over the social meme they have generated that has morphed into a cocktail of historical revisionism, wishful thinking, good intentions, and a soupçon of white, entitled appropriation. Historically, two-spirited people especially suffered under white colonization and the abusive American Indian boarding schools in the 19th-20th centuries, which made them choose a gender and its roles rather than live as a third gender. Native American identity in which one person contains female and male spirits within them. Their work explores the intersections of queer and Indigenous identity, and social justice. Two-Spirit (also two spirit or, occasionally, twospirited) is a modern, pan-Indian, umbrella term used by some Indigenous North Americans to describe Native people in their communities who fulfill a traditional third-gender (or other gender-variant) ceremonial and social role in their cultures. [51] Another instance in the late 1840s was of a Crow badé who was caught, possibly raiding horses, by the Lakota and was killed. [14], Non-Native anthropologist Will Roscoe gets much of the public credit for coining the term two spirit. This smacks an awful lot of cultural appropriation. The French called these people berdaches. In 2009, writing for the Encyclopedia of Gender and Society, Kylan Mattias de Vries wrote. [12], In academia, there has since 2010 or earlier been a move to "queer the analytics of settler colonialism" and create a "twospirit" critique as part of the general field of queer studies. [4] Even with the modern adoption of pan-Indian terms like two-spirit, and the creation of a modern pan-Indian community around this naming, not all cultures will perceive two-spirits the same way, or welcome a pan-Indian term to replace the terms already in use by their cultures. Gay specifically is about attraction to a person of the same sex. )[6], Even at the series of conferences where the term was gradually adopted (1990 being the third of five), concern was expressed by a number of the Native attendees that traditional Natives back in the reservation communities would never agree to this newly-coined concept, or adopt the neologism being used to describe it. [57][58] Some sources have reported that the Aztecs and Incas had laws against such individuals,[59] though there are some authors who feel that this was exaggerated or the result of acculturation, because all of the documents indicating this are post-conquest and any that existed before had been destroyed by the Spanish. Already there is so much of First Nations culture that has been exploited and appropriated in this country; must our terms of resistance also be targeted for mainstream appropriation and consumption? [4], For First Nations people whose lives have been impacted by the Residential Schools, and other Indigenous communities who have experienced severe cultural damage from colonization, the specific two-spirit traditions in their communities may have been severely damaged, fragmented, or even lost. The initialism, as well as some of its common variants, functions as an umbrella term for sexuality and gender identity. 1,279 likes. A Native American gender identity. They are called joyas, and are held in great esteem. Lapahie, Harrison, Jr. Hosteen Klah (Sir Left Handed). Ikwekaazo and ininiikaazo could take spouses of their own sex. Samuel White Swan-Perkins, KQED, November 2018. When people do not see the harm in "sharing" the term, they are missing the point and refusing to recognize that by appropriating the term they will inevitably alter its cultural context. [47], Historically, the presence of male-bodied two-spirits "was a fundamental institution among most tribal peoples", according to Brian Gilley[48] and, according to non-Native anthropologist Will Roscoe, both male- and female-bodied two-spirits have been documented "in over 130 North American tribes, in every region of the continent". How to use the term two-spirit [71][72], In 2017 two-spirited Metis filmmaker Marjorie Beaucage released a Coming In Stories: Two Spirit in Saskatchewan as way to raise awareness about the experiences of two-spirited individuals living in Saskatchewan, Canada. At the same time, others saw it as a capitulation to urbanization and loss of culture that, while initially intended to help people reconnect with the spiritual dimension of these roles, was not working out the way it had been intended. [62], Before the late twentieth-century, non-Native (i.e. [5] Bardache, in turn, derived from the Persian برده barda meaning "captive", "prisoner of war", "slave". The term Two Spirit is an umbrella term across American Indian and First Nations cultures for a person who embodies both male and female spirits within them, hence Two Spirit. Some Native Americans/First Nations people that hold to more traditional religious and cultural values view two-spirit as a cultural and social term, rather than one with any religious or spiritual meaning. Bisexual. Two-Spirit Community. 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